Self Esteem and Emotional Intelligence Among College Teachers

1 Clinical Psychologist, Department of Clinical Psychology, NIMHANS, Bangalore

2 Lecturer, Department of Clinical Psychology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Chennai

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS, Bangalore

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*Address for Correspondence: Dr.E.Sinu, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore-560029, Phone: 9845145599, email id: esinu27@gmail.com

Abstract

Aim: To examine the level of self-esteem and emotional Intelligence among college teachers. Method: A sample of 110 college teachers (both male and female) who have attended training programme on psycho-educational skills, hailing from Madurai region, Tamil Nadu have been selected using simple random sampling technique . The study was descriptive in nature. Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventory Emotional intelligence scale were used.

Results: More than one-fourth of them have high self-esteem and less than 17% of the teachers have low self-esteem. Mean self-esteem score of the college teachers is 69.57, which is fairly high. More than one-third (30%) of the school teachers have high emotional intelligence (EI) and few (18%) t have Low EI. Mean Emotional Intelligence score for the college teachers is 68.55%, which is fairly high. There is a positive correlation between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among college teachers (r = +0.83 p<.05).

Conclusion: Female teachers have more self-esteem and emotional intelligence than male teachers. Teachers who teach science subjects are having less self-esteem and emotional Intelligence than the teachers who handle arts subjects.

 

Key words: self-esteem and emotional Intelligence

 

Background

Emotional intelligence is essential for every individual in order to lead a balanced life.1 The term emotional intelligence attempts to analyze the details of excitement, feeling and capability status of human beings.2 There are many definitions given to this

concept, Goleman (1995) defines the Emotional Intelligence (EI) as the ability to identify, regulate, and manage emotions in  self and in others.3Further, it also shows the capacity of an individual to obtain, organize emotions and to conceptualize the information.4

 

Teachers play important role in inculcating knowledge to students. To play their role effectively, it is proved that they require certain skills. Researchstudies report that  influence of EI in the success of the teacher’s duty in both academic and non-academic areas.1,5 In academic setting emotional intelligence is helpful for understanding the feelings of students in  classroom, thus a teacher can respond appropriately to facilitate  students to learn effectively.6They can guide students in regulating their emotions as well as in increasing their emotional and social development. Apart from this, emotional intelligence is reported to influence on one’s physical and emotional health positively and is important for better work performance.5

 

In recent years, studies have been attempting to discover the link between EI and self-esteem (SE). Many researchers have proved the relationship between EI and SE and are found to be helpful in academic performance.7 EI is  strong predictor of self-esteem and it also explains the influence of social competence on self-esteem8.

Self-esteem is being considered as the positive emotional response of an individual about oneself.. It is  general personality trait and personal judgment of one’s own value.9It is a sense of personal satisfaction.10 and it influences one’s view of family and society. Roger’s theory self-esteem is useful in assessing the discrepancy between an individual’s real self and ideal self.11High level of self-esteem is found to have a positive relationship with mental health.12 There are studies in India that have established the relationship between EI and Self-esteem among students, however, there are no studies to see the relationship among these variables among college teachers. Hence present study aimed to examine the association between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among college teachers.

 

Methodology

 

The study used descriptive research design. All the teachers, who have attended training programme on Life Skill Education organized by Madurai District Administration and National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), Madurai Region, considered as study population.

Inclusion Criteria: Teachers who have attended training programme on Psycho-educational skills, hailing from Madurai region, Tamil Nadu. Both male and female teachers were included in the study.

Exclusion Criteria: Teachers who refused consent for the study.

Sampling: From the trained teacher’s list, 110 teachers have been selected randomly by using simple random sampling technique (lottery method).

Tools: A semi-structured interview schedule was prepared to profile the demographic details of the Teachers.  40 items culture free Self-Esteem Inventory {Form-AD} by Battle13 (1984), having 3 major areas namely Self-Esteem General, Self-Esteem Personal and Self Esteem Social was used to study the self-esteem of the college teachers.  This tool has higher reliability (alpha = 0.97) and validity (alpha = 0.89). The 30 items Emotional Intelligence scale by Petrides & Furnhan14 (2006) with four dimensions namely Well- being, Self-control, Emotionality, and Sociability were administered on the teachers. This tool has higher reliability (alpha = 0.94) and validity (alpha = 0.97).  Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests.

Results

Socio-demographic details of the respondents reveal that mean age of the college teachers is 38.42 years and their age ranged from 34 years to 57 years.  Majority of the teachers are Hindu, hailing from backward class, from urban background, from nuclear family, having 3 to 4 dependents at Home, and 2 earning members in their home. Mean years of teaching experience is 17 years and having on an average 45 students in the class.

Table 1 (Appendix) shows that 16.36% of teachers have low self-esteem general, 58.18% of them have moderate self-esteem general and around 25% have high level of general self-esteem. In the sub-domain   personal self-esteem, 12.73%, 53.64% and 33.64% of them have low, moderate and high scores respectively. In the sub-domain of social self-esteem, few (10.9%) have low scores, 49.09% have moderate and 40% have high social self-esteem. Overall, 14% of teachers have low self-esteem, whereas 54.55% and 30.91% of them have moderate and high self-esteem respectively. Thus it is observed that few (12-16%) of the teachers reported to have low SE in all the domains, and 25-40% are having High self-esteem, whereas majority seem to have moderate self-esteem. Less than 17% of the teachers have low self-esteem, whereas more than 26% of them have High Self Esteem. The mean self-esteem score is found to be 69.57 %, which is fairly high. A maximum number of teachers are falling under the moderate category when it comes to domain wise comparison SE General (58.18), SE Personal (53.64) and SE Social (49.09) comparison.

Table 2 (Appendix) reveals the intelligence of the college teachers. In the sub domain of Well-being, 9.09% have got low scores, 61.82% have got moderate scores and 29.09% have high scores. Few (16.36%) respondents have low EI, 56.36% have moderate EI-self-control and another 34.55% have high EI-self-control. In sub-domain of EI-Emotionality 15.45% have low scores, 52.73% had moderate and 40.91% have high score. In sub-domain (EI-Sociability) 18.18%, 43.64% and 38.82% of the teachers have got low, moderate and high scores respectively. Overall few(15.45%) teachers have low EI, more than half of them (52.73%) are found to have moderate EI and 31.82% have high EI. Hence, similar to SE, few (9-18%) respondents reported low EI in all the sub dimensions, and 29-40% reported to have high EI, whereas majority of the teachers are reported to have moderate EI. Less than 18 percent of them have Low EI, whereas more than 30 percent of them have high EI. The mean EI score for the college teachers is found to   68.55%which is fairly high. There is a positive correlation between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among college teachers (‘r’= 0.83 p<.05). In Table 3 (Appendix) There is strong positive association between socio-demographic variables such as age, monthly income, years of service with self-esteem and emotional intelligence (p<0.05).

Suggestions

Individual and group counseling to College Teachers could be offered by the professional Psychologists and Psychotherapists.  More Group activities to improve the Self-Esteem and Emotional Intelligence for the College Teachers could be suggested and implemented. It is strongly recommended that the Introduction of 10 Life Skills Education Programme suggested by WHO (1997)15 could be the part of their Academic programs. The 10 Life Skills namely, Self-Awareness, Empathy, Communication, Interpersonal Relationship, Coping with Stress, Coping with Emotions, Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, Decision Making, could be introduced. The College Teachers could actively participate in the Psycho-Education &training programmes. Action Oriented Training, Evaluation, Assessment and Intervention Research Activities on various Psycho-Social areas could be carried out, and presented to both Academic and Practice world.

Conclusions

Female teachers have more self-esteem and emotional intelligence than male teachers. Teachers who teach science subjects are having less self-esteem and emotional intelligence than the teachers who handle arts subjects. Education plays key role in shaping children to have balanced emotion and to regulate their emotions which in turn promotes positive mental health of the school children.

References

 

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  9. Biabangard, Esmaeil. The methods of enhancement of self-esteem in children and adolescents. Tehran: The Council of Parents and Educators (in Persian); 1995&Byabangard, Esmail. Methods to increase the self-esteem in the children and teenagers. Tehran: The parents and teachers assembly Publication; 1384.
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Appendix

Table 1: Self-Esteem of College Teachers

Sl:

No

Factors

Self-esteem

Low Moderate High Total
N % N % N % N %
1. General SE 18 16.36 64 58.18 28 25.45 110 100.0
2.  Personal  SE 14 12.73 59 53.64 37 33.64 110 100.0
3.  Social SE 12 10.91 54 49.09 44 40.00 110 100.0

Table 2: Emotional Intelligence of the college teachers

Sl:

No

Emotional Intelligence Low Moderate High Total
N % N % N % N %
1. Well being 10 9.09 68 61.82 32 29.09 110 100.0
2. Self-control 18 16.36 62 56.36 38 34.55 110 100.0
3. Emotionality 17 15.45 58 52.73 45 40.91 110 100.0
4. Sociability 20 18.18 48 43.64 42 38.18 110 100.00
  Total 17 15.45 58 52.73 35 31.82 110 100.0

Table 3: Correlation between Self-esteem and Emotional intelligence with regard to Socio-demographic factors

Sl:

No

Socio-Demographic factors             Self-Esteem

 

Emotional Intelligence
‘ r’ value Sig ‘ r’ value Sig
1. Age 0.72 p<0.05 0.76 p<0.05
2. Monthly Income 0.68 p<0.05 0.69 p<0.05
3. Years of Service 0.74 p<0.05 0.70 p<0.05